Master Kamaloddin Bihzad, a Leading Painter in Herat School

Levon Babken Chookaszian, Ali Asghar Meshkini

Abstract


Painting is one of the arts patronized by the Iranian kings to depict their history, culture and power. The outstanding samples of this art may be found in Persepolis, the paintings illustrated on walls of Bishapour palace, and Manichaean works. Although after gaining power by Moslems, the progress of this art was interrupted for a while, but after the revival of the Iranian culture and civilization since the third and fourth centuries, painting art was flourished again. The political stability, the rulers' power and wealth in the next eras, especially in Timurid era, prepared the ground for flourishing this art in all aspects more than before under the names of artistic schools such as Baqdad school, Tabriz school, and Shiraz school. There is no doubt that Timurid era has been considered as a special period of art flourishing because of the Herat school in Iran which may be called as the Golden Age of the Iranian art and culture. Certainly, Master Kamaloddin Bihzad is among the leading painters of this school in that era. The Herat school began in the ninth century (Lunar Hegira), in Timurid era. Bihzad, under the patronage of art-advocating kings in Timurid era, took initiatives which are considered as innovations not only in Herat school but also in the Iranian art history. In this research paper, it is tried to analyze the Herat school more deeply through a causal glance on the Iranian painting history after Islam, and the role played by Bihzad in the growth and promotion of this art has been examined. Finally, the factors of growth and promotion of this art have been specified


Keywords


Painting, Herat school, Master Kamaloddin Bihzad, Configuration, Human Picture, Color Combination.

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