The Impact of Elements of higher educational Environment on Changes of Psychological Capital in Students; a Model for Islamic Azad Universities of Tehran

Sadina Pira, Kamran Mohamadkhani, Ali Taghipoor Zahir, Amirhosein Mohamaddavoudi


Employing a functional approach, the present article sought to change psychological capital in students of Islamic Azad Universities of Tehran through altering components and dimensions of their higher educational environment. To scrutinize the research purpose, the study applied descriptive-correlational survey research method. To get a good account of the topic, authors exercise a concise overview of literature and detailed interview with field specialists. Finally, seven elements of learning environment in higher education were detected, which were applied to develop a questionnaire. In order to determine situation of psychological capitals, the article utilized Luthans et al.’s (2007) standard questionnaire. Face validity of questionnaires was ensured through expert’s ideas. Construct validity of learning environment questionnaire was found to be about 0/81 based on factor analysis. Construct validity of psychological capital questionnaire was also calculated (0/56). Cronbach's alpha reliability of learning environment and psychological capital questionnaire were measured to be about 0/95 and 0/88, respectively. Through cluster stratified random sampling, 387 participants were selected from all students of Islamic Azad Universities of Tehran. Data were examined through two statistical tests including (1) Exploratory factor analysis to determine model components, and (2) one sample t-test to determine the current status of students’ psychological capital. The obtained results might be summarized as follows.

The learner with effect coefficient of 0/44 has the maximum influence on psychological capital. Effect coefficient of teaching methods on this capital amounted to 0/30. Technology with effect coefficient of 0/19 appears to have the least direct impact on psychological capital. Objectives, methods, evaluation and teacher showed some indirect effect on this capital. The current status of this capital with four elements (self-efficacy, hope, optimism, resilience) was calculated to be 51/24-in confidence level of 0/05. This finding suggests that psychological capital of students is in undesirable situation. A new model was presented based on path analysis model, designed with SEM techniques using LISREL software. This model sought to indicate direct or indirect role of each dimension of learning environment in the changes of psychological capital. 


Learning Environment, Psychological Capital, Path Analysis Model.

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