“Surviving Calamity”: Allied Intelligence Failures and Anti-gas Responses at the Beginning of the Western Front Gas War, April-May 1915

Hanene Zoghlami


Based on British and French archive material, this paper seeks to contribute to the limited “gas warfare historiography” by exploring a neglected but revealing aspect of Franco-British chemical warfare in 1915. A contextual examination of the first German gas attack will be undertaken while the light will be cast on a revealing yet unexplored archival document about the “murky side” of  French military acquaintance with the first German use of  poison gas.


First World War, Gas Weapons, Allies, German Army, Western Front, Schlieffen Plan, Intelligence.

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