Soft Commercial Technology and its Transfer Model in Small and Medium Enterprises: A Review

Ali N. Mosleh Shirazi, Ali Mohammadi, Abbas Abbasi, Mohammad Nazari

Abstract


Technology transfer is considered an important issue in the process of industrial development. At the same time, it has gained more attention due to current economic revolutions and modern paradigms in production. Furthermore, technology transfer per se has been changed a lot in its revolutionary path and soft technology has been defined as a new paradigm. The present study reviewed definitions and philosophy of technology, technology transfer models in general with emphasis on soft technology transfer models. The results showed that since humanity technology is philosophically defined by work, practice comes over theorization and normally, technology has priority over science in terms of epistemology. The findings from the literature indicated that majority of studies on soft commercial technology transfer are based upon modeling approach and at the same time, the most prevalent classification for technology transfer is intra-organizational and intra-corporate soft technology transfer. Moreover, the focus of economic commercial soft technology transfer has been on energy sector in recent years whereas it has shifted onto enterprise level business organization. In addition, important issues to be studied in literature included optimization of production and business services (lean production, comprehensive quality management, ISO, Kanban, organizational resources planning, global branding, marketing, etc.) which are in favor of higher competitiveness in organization and survival of economic enterprise in the competitive condition. It seems that the most important issue in literature is realization of business goals and productive and operational goals in organizations including small and medium enterprises.


Keywords


model, technology transfer, commercial soft technology.

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